History of Kyiv
History of Kyiv numbers more than 15000 years. Having been established as small settlement of Slavic tribe of Polians, Kyiv has become one of the biggest cities in the world.
For the first time ever Kyiv is mentioned in chronicles in 862, and the first settlement on its territory on Starokievskyi hill refers to Stone Age.
There is legend that Kyiv was found by three brothers Kyi, Shchek, Khoryv and their sister Lybid in the end of V century . beginning of VI century Anno Domini on the right bank of Dnieper River. The city was named after Kyi in honour of the eldest brother.
Thenceforth the history of Kyiv is continuously traced, since è century Kyiv has become the capital of great state and influential political centre of Europe.
Novgorod Prince Oleg conquered Kyiv in 882 and announced it to be the capital of Ancient Rus, cradle of three fraternal nations . Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian.
During the reign of Vladimir Sviatoslavich the Great (from 980 till 1015) Kyiv was very actively developed. In 988 Prince Vladimir christened Rus and laid the foundation of further development of literature, writing and culture.
In èI century during the reign of Yaroslav-the-Wise Kyiv was the most prominent hearth and home of civilization in Christian world. The city was developed rapidly. At that time Saint Sophia Cathedral, Golden Gate, Kyiv Pechersk Lavra and Klovsky Palace were established as well as the first Russian Library. There were over 400 churches, 8 markets and 50 000 inhabitants. Kyiv was one of the most prosperous handicraft and trade centres of Europe. In Western Europe only Paris (100 000 inhabitants) was more inhabited.
Rapid development of Kyiv was interrupted by Tatar-Mongolian invasion whereby in 1240 the city was ruined and eviscerated. Only 2000 people survived khan.s Batyi invasion.
In 1362 Kyiv became a part of Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. It was the time of development. Significant economic growth was observed.
Since the middle of XIX century Khreshchatyk has become Main and Central Street of Kyiv. In 1871 the first permanent chain-bridge over Dnieper River was built, at that time it was the longest bridge in Europe.
When it was known about revolution in 1917, temporary government was formed in Kyiv. Between 1917 and 1921 three governments of independent Ukrainian state were changed in Kyiv; state was simply destroyed by civil war. In January 22, 1918 Central Council announced independence of Ukraine. Form November, 1917 till summer 1920 Kyiv was transferred from government to government; power and authority was continuously changed.
In 1922 Soviet Union was established and Ukrainian Socialistic Soviet Republic was entered into Soviet Union. Formally sovereign state as part of federation, actually all powers and authorities were transferred to center, and USSR became totalitarian state. In 1930s mass repressions began. In the meantime Kyiv suffered a lot. A great deal of beautiful and splendid churches and cathedrals were destroyed. Over one hundred cultic edifices were lost and destroyed during this period.
During the Second World War Kyiv was nearly razed to the ground. Defence of Kyiv continued for 72 days, and in the end Kyiv was captured and grasped by fascists. Babi Yar tragedy is widely known, area in the city of Kyiv where fascists put to death a great deal of people. Besides, national socialists built two concentration camps in the city neighborhood where more than 200.000 people (soviet prisoner of war and citizens) were grinded down during the years of war. More than 100 000 people were transferred from Kyiv to Germany with the purpose of compulsory labor. German troops grasped Kyiv on September 19, 1941 and only on November 06, 1943 Kyiv was emancipated.
During postwar years Kyiv was rapidly reconstructed.
Since December, 1991 Kyiv has become the capital of independent Ukraine. Nowadays Kyiv is one of eight biggest cities in Europe, developed city with population over 3.5 million of people. It is beautiful green city with over 60 parks, several water storages; every year lime trees and chinquapin trees are blooming on its streets. Tourist infrastructure is actively developed in Kyiv, a great deal of historical edifices and structures were renovated and reconstructed, new micro-districts are in the process of building and construction. Tourist can be settled in comfortable hotels, visit theatres and museums, night clubs, restaurants and bars, excursions and river cruises. Two international airports, railway station and riverside station are functioning in the city of Kyiv. Cultural and sport life of Ukrainian capital is traditionally on the highest level. In 2005 Kyiv organized prestigious music competition "Eurovision", and in 2012 Kyiv admitted football matches "Euro-2012".
Kyiv metropolitan railway broke world record: Arsenalna station is the deepest one in the world (105.5 meters in depth).
Nowadays Kyiv is one of the most beautiful cities in the world.